Stem Docs


Source code for stem.descriptor.microdescriptor

# Copyright 2013-2019, Damian Johnson and The Tor Project
# See LICENSE for licensing information

Parsing for Tor microdescriptors, which contain a distilled version of a
relay's server descriptor. As of Tor version Tor no longer
downloads server descriptors by default, opting for microdescriptors instead.

Unlike most descriptor documents these aren't available on the metrics site
(since they don't contain any information that the server descriptors don't).

The limited information in microdescriptors make them rather clunky to use
compared with server descriptors. For instance microdescriptors lack the
relay's fingerprint, making it difficut to use them to look up the relay's
other descriptors.

To do so you need to match the microdescriptor's digest against its
corresponding router status entry. For added fun as of this writing the
controller doesn't even surface those router status entries

For instance, here's an example that prints the nickname and fingerprints of
the exit relays.


  import os

  from stem.control import Controller
  from stem.descriptor import parse_file

  with Controller.from_port(port = 9051) as controller:

    exit_digests = set()
    data_dir = controller.get_conf('DataDirectory')

    for desc in controller.get_microdescriptors():
      if desc.exit_policy.is_exiting_allowed():

    print 'Exit Relays:'

    for desc in parse_file(os.path.join(data_dir, 'cached-microdesc-consensus')):
      if desc.digest in exit_digests:
        print '  %s (%s)' % (desc.nickname, desc.fingerprint)

Doing the same is trivial with server descriptors...


  from stem.descriptor import parse_file

  print 'Exit Relays:'

  for desc in parse_file('/home/atagar/.tor/cached-descriptors'):
    if desc.exit_policy.is_exiting_allowed():
      print '  %s (%s)' % (desc.nickname, desc.fingerprint)

**Module Overview:**


  Microdescriptor - Tor microdescriptor.

import hashlib

import stem.exit_policy
import stem.prereq

from stem.descriptor import (

from stem.descriptor.router_status_entry import (

if stem.prereq._is_lru_cache_available():
  from functools import lru_cache
  from stem.util.lru_cache import lru_cache



def _parse_file(descriptor_file, validate = False, **kwargs):
  Iterates over the microdescriptors in a file.

  :param file descriptor_file: file with descriptor content
  :param bool validate: checks the validity of the descriptor's content if
    **True**, skips these checks otherwise
  :param dict kwargs: additional arguments for the descriptor constructor

  :returns: iterator for Microdescriptor instances in the file

    * **ValueError** if the contents is malformed and validate is True
    * **IOError** if the file can't be read

  while True:
    annotations = _read_until_keywords('onion-key', descriptor_file)

    # read until we reach an annotation or onion-key line
    descriptor_lines = []

    # read the onion-key line, done if we're at the end of the document

    onion_key_line = descriptor_file.readline()

    if onion_key_line:

    while True:
      last_position = descriptor_file.tell()
      line = descriptor_file.readline()

      if not line:
        break  # EOF
      elif line.startswith(b'@') or line.startswith(b'onion-key'):

    if descriptor_lines:
      if descriptor_lines[0].startswith(b'@type'):
        descriptor_lines = descriptor_lines[1:]

      # strip newlines from annotations
      annotations = list(map(bytes.strip, annotations))

      descriptor_text = bytes.join(b'', descriptor_lines)

      yield Microdescriptor(descriptor_text, validate, annotations, **kwargs)
      break  # done parsing descriptors

def _parse_id_line(descriptor, entries):
  identities = {}

  for entry in _values('id', entries):
    entry_comp = entry.split()

    if len(entry_comp) >= 2:
      key_type, key_value = entry_comp[0], entry_comp[1]

      if key_type in identities:
        raise ValueError("There can only be one 'id' line per a key type, but '%s' appeared multiple times" % key_type)

      descriptor.identifier_type = key_type
      descriptor.identifier = key_value
      identities[key_type] = key_value
      raise ValueError("'id' lines should contain both the key type and digest: id %s" % entry)

  descriptor.identifiers = identities

_parse_onion_key_line = _parse_key_block('onion-key', 'onion_key', 'RSA PUBLIC KEY')
_parse_ntor_onion_key_line = _parse_simple_line('ntor-onion-key', 'ntor_onion_key')
_parse_family_line = _parse_simple_line('family', 'family', func = lambda v: v.split(' '))
_parse_p6_line = _parse_simple_line('p6', 'exit_policy_v6', func = lambda v: stem.exit_policy.MicroExitPolicy(v))
_parse_pr_line = _parse_protocol_line('pr', 'protocols')

[docs]class Microdescriptor(Descriptor): """ Microdescriptor (`descriptor specification <>`_) :var str onion_key: **\\*** key used to encrypt EXTEND cells :var str ntor_onion_key: base64 key used to encrypt EXTEND in the ntor protocol :var list or_addresses: **\\*** alternative for our address/or_port attributes, each entry is a tuple of the form (address (**str**), port (**int**), is_ipv6 (**bool**)) :var list family: **\\*** nicknames or fingerprints of declared family :var stem.exit_policy.MicroExitPolicy exit_policy: **\\*** relay's exit policy :var stem.exit_policy.MicroExitPolicy exit_policy_v6: **\\*** exit policy for IPv6 :var hash identifiers: mapping of key types (like rsa1024 or ed25519) to their base64 encoded identity, this is only used for collision prevention (:trac:`11743`) :var dict protocols: mapping of protocols to their supported versions :var str identifier: base64 encoded identity digest (**deprecated**, use identifiers instead) :var str identifier_type: identity digest key type (**deprecated**, use identifiers instead) **\\*** attribute is required when we're parsed with validation .. versionchanged:: 1.1.0 Added the identifier and identifier_type attributes. .. versionchanged:: 1.5.0 Added the identifiers attribute, and deprecated identifier and identifier_type since the field can now appear multiple times. .. versionchanged:: 1.6.0 Added the protocols attribute. .. versionchanged:: 1.8.0 Replaced our **digest** attribute with a much more flexible **digest()** method. Unfortunately I cannot do this in a backward compatible way because of the name conflict. The old digest had multiple problems (for instance, being hex rather than base64 encoded), so hopefully no one was using it. Very sorry if this causes trouble for anyone. """ TYPE_ANNOTATION_NAME = 'microdescriptor' ATTRIBUTES = { 'onion_key': (None, _parse_onion_key_line), 'ntor_onion_key': (None, _parse_ntor_onion_key_line), 'or_addresses': ([], _parse_a_line), 'family': ([], _parse_family_line), 'exit_policy': (stem.exit_policy.MicroExitPolicy('reject 1-65535'), _parse_p_line), 'exit_policy_v6': (None, _parse_p6_line), 'identifier_type': (None, _parse_id_line), # deprecated in favor of identifiers 'identifier': (None, _parse_id_line), # deprecated in favor of identifiers 'identifiers': ({}, _parse_id_line), 'protocols': ({}, _parse_pr_line), } PARSER_FOR_LINE = { 'onion-key': _parse_onion_key_line, 'ntor-onion-key': _parse_ntor_onion_key_line, 'a': _parse_a_line, 'family': _parse_family_line, 'p': _parse_p_line, 'p6': _parse_p6_line, 'pr': _parse_pr_line, 'id': _parse_id_line, } @classmethod
[docs] def content(cls, attr = None, exclude = (), sign = False): if sign: raise NotImplementedError('Signing of %s not implemented' % cls.__name__) return _descriptor_content(attr, exclude, ( ('onion-key', _random_crypto_blob('RSA PUBLIC KEY')), ))
def __init__(self, raw_contents, validate = False, annotations = None): super(Microdescriptor, self).__init__(raw_contents, lazy_load = not validate) self._annotation_lines = annotations if annotations else [] entries = _descriptor_components(raw_contents, validate) if validate: self._parse(entries, validate) self._check_constraints(entries) else: self._entries = entries
[docs] def digest(self, hash_type = DigestHash.SHA256, encoding = DigestEncoding.BASE64): """ Digest of this microdescriptor. These are referenced by... * **Microdescriptor Consensus** * Referer: :class:`~stem.descriptor.router_status_entry.RouterStatusEntryMicroV3` **digest** attribute * Format: **SHA256/BASE64** .. versionadded:: 1.8.0 :param stem.descriptor.DigestHash hash_type: digest hashing algorithm :param stem.descriptor.DigestEncoding encoding: digest encoding :returns: **hashlib.HASH** or **str** based on our encoding argument """ if hash_type == DigestHash.SHA1: return stem.descriptor._encode_digest(hashlib.sha1(self.get_bytes()), encoding) elif hash_type == DigestHash.SHA256: return stem.descriptor._encode_digest(hashlib.sha256(self.get_bytes()), encoding) else: raise NotImplementedError('Microdescriptor digests are only available in sha1 and sha256, not %s' % hash_type)
[docs] def get_annotations(self): """ Provides content that appeared prior to the descriptor. If this comes from the cached-microdescs then this commonly contains content like... :: @last-listed 2013-02-24 00:18:30 :returns: **dict** with the key/value pairs in our annotations """ annotation_dict = {} for line in self._annotation_lines: if b' ' in line: key, value = line.split(b' ', 1) annotation_dict[key] = value else: annotation_dict[line] = None return annotation_dict
[docs] def get_annotation_lines(self): """ Provides the lines of content that appeared prior to the descriptor. This is the same as the :func:`~stem.descriptor.microdescriptor.Microdescriptor.get_annotations` results, but with the unparsed lines and ordering retained. :returns: **list** with the lines of annotation that came before this descriptor """ return self._annotation_lines
def _check_constraints(self, entries): """ Does a basic check that the entries conform to this descriptor type's constraints. :param dict entries: keyword => (value, pgp key) entries :raises: **ValueError** if an issue arises in validation """ for keyword in REQUIRED_FIELDS: if keyword not in entries: raise ValueError("Microdescriptor must have a '%s' entry" % keyword) for keyword in SINGLE_FIELDS: if keyword in entries and len(entries[keyword]) > 1: raise ValueError("The '%s' entry can only appear once in a microdescriptor" % keyword) if 'onion-key' != list(entries.keys())[0]: raise ValueError("Microdescriptor must start with a 'onion-key' entry") def _name(self, is_plural = False): return 'microdescriptors' if is_plural else 'microdescriptor'